The growing interest and expectations from the blockchain applica-tions attract many analysts to this issue. In what spheres of logistics and supply chain management blockchain is appropriate? What blockchain software solutions are available to companies now? This paper investigates the basic function-ality of the existing software solutions on the market, the comparative analysis of blockchain platforms used for developing the solutions for logistics is also carried out. The main trends of blockchain applications are identified, based on the analysis of the project experience on the use of blockchain, in logistics and supply chain management, in different countries. The problems, limitations and conditions of blockchain implementation are also determined.
Performance impacts of ordering and production control policies in the presence of capacity disruptions are studied on the real-life example of a retail supply chain with product perishability considerations. Constraints on product perishability typically result in reductions in safety stock and increases in transportation frequency. Consideration of the production capacity disruption risks may lead to safety stock increases. This trade-off is approached with the help of a simulation model that is used to compare supply chain performance impacts with regard to coordinated and non-coordinated ordering and production control policies. Real data of a fast moving consumer goods company is used to perform simulations and to derive novel managerial insights and practical recommendations on inventory, on-time delivery and service level control. In particular, for the first time, the effect of ‘postponed redundancy’ has been observed. Moreover, a coordinated production–ordering contingency policy in the supply chain within and after the disruption period has been developed and tested to reduce the negative impacts of the ‘postponed redundancy’. The lessons learned from experiments provide evidence that a coordinated policy is advantageous for inventory dynamics stabilization, improvement in on-time delivery, and variation reduction in customer service level.
The ripple effect refers to structural dynamics and describes a downstream propagation of the downscaling in demand fulfilment in the supply chain (SC) as a result of a severe disruption. The bullwhip effect refers to operational dynamics and amplifies in the upstream direction as ordering oscillations. Being interested in uncovering if the ripple effect can be a driver of the bullwhip effect, we performed a simulation-based study to investigate the interrelations of the structural and operational dynamics in the SC. The results advance our knowledge about both ripple and bullwhip effects and reveal, for the first time, that the ripple effect can be a bullwhip-effect driver, while the latter can be launched by a severe disruption even in the downstream direction. The findings show that the ripple effect influences the bullwhip effect through backlog accumulation over the disruption time as a consequence of non-coordinated ordering and production planning policies. To cope with this effect, a contingent production-inventory control policy is proposed that provides results in favour of information coordination in SC disruption management to mitigate both ripple and bullwhip effects. The SC managers need to take into account the risk of bullwhip effect during the capacity disruption and recovery periods.
In the development of programs for delivering crude oil to Southern Europe, it is necessary to determine the trends in crude oil delivery and production and to analyze the capabilities of the crude oil transportation system. The global trend towards reducing the consumption of non-renewable energy has led to a significant reduction in the number of refineries in Europe. The purpose of this paper was to determine the trends in oil production and delivery and to assess the capacity of the oil transportation systems in Southern Europe. The allocation of crude oil production and delivery facilities in Southern European countries from 2005 to 2015 was analyzed using quantitative evaluation methodology. Changes in European crude oil production and delivery were highlighted. The transport infrastructure potential of oil supplies to consumers and oil production was studied. The study established that from 2013 to 2015, the oil supply to the refineries increased and generated additional stress on the transportation infrastructure. However, European infrastructure capacities had the necessary reserves to operate for the next several years without additional investment. In this paper, aggregate numbers for oil production and delivery are used. In addition, different refineries process different oil types. Nevertheless, the approach designed in this study can be applied to study the supply of certain oil types on the market.
Trends in the digitalization of business open up opportunities for the use of fundamental approaches to the development of enterprise architecture in the creation of appropriate methodologies. The article discusses the approach to the use of adapted Zachman framework for enterprise architecture as a basis for the systematization and structuring of the industry methodology of integrated supply chain planning based on SCOR model. A practical example of using the proposed approach for description of one of the target processes - tactical supply chain planning is considered.
It is concluded that taking into account the ongoing trend in the digitalization of business, including in the field of integrated supply chain planning, the use of an adapted Zachman framework for enterprise architecture allows solving an important scientific and economic problem of systematization and structuring of industry methodologies.
It is shown that the concept of «Digital Twin» is becoming an increasingly popular method of solving key problems in supply chain management, in particular, when monitoring logistics business processes. A detailed analysis of literary sources and Internet resources on the subject of digital twins is carried out. The basic terminology, the terms of «Digital Twin» and of similar concepts, such as «digital footprint», «digital shadow», «digital thread», are given.
The basic properties (characteristics) of digital twins and the advantages obtained by using this concept in supply chains are considered. The methodological aspects of the Digital Twin concept are analyzed both in the academic environment and in the context of the practice of large companies.
It is shown that the problem of monitoring consumer goods can be effectively solved us ing digital counterparts of the FMCG sector supply chains.
The main variants of the Supply Chain Digital Twin «design» are presented. An FMCG supply chain monitoring system using convergence of digital twins of products and processes in the chain is proposed. An example of the construction of a monitoring system in the supply chain of GHIOTTONE consumer goods using the digital ounterparts of the main processes represented by the SCOR model is considered.
When managing procurements and suppliers, one often has to deal with heterogeneous information from various sources, which is not always amenable to formalization, since it can be defined by qualitative characteristics. Under the sanction pressure on the Russian economy, changes in the market trends for the sale of many goods and services are revolutionary in nature, making it difficult to objectively use mathematical statistics and probability theory for business planning purposes. The increase in the share of sales of innovative products with a short life cycle also limit the use of science-based approaches for forecasting the need for supplies. Therefore, issues of improving and standardizing methods of processing and analyzing information that reflects the results of activities of companies in various business sectors are quite relevant. The article discusses the specifics of constructing non-linear dependencies of stock consumption on various environmental factors that can be used in calculating insurance stocks. In addition, the article substantiates the possibility of using mutually and autocorrelation functions when planning the need for supplies, as well as methods of multiple correlation and regression analysis. For the procedures for selecting counterparties in procurement, issues of using rank correlation methods are considered. The conclusions made in the article, methodologically, are based on a systematic approach to the analysis of the relationship between the results of companies and the influence of macro and microeconomic factors. When processing statistical information, econometric methods and models were used as ways to study quantitative and qualitative economic relationships. The results of the calculations carried out in the article show the effectiveness of the proposed stochastic methods that can be actively used in analyzing consumption trends and planning stocks of raw materials, materials, finished products, operational resources in production, trading and logistics companies.
The article presents a special modification of the EOQ formula and its application to the accounting of the cargo capacity factor for the relevant procedures for optimizing deliveries when renting storage facilities. The specified development will allow managers to take into account the following process specifics in the format of a simulated supply chain when managing inventory. First of all, it will allow considering the most important factor of cargo capacity when optimizing stocks. Moreover, this formula will make it possible to find the optimal strategy for the supply of goods if, also, it is necessary to take into account the combined effect of several factors necessary for practice, which will undoubtedly affect decision-making procedures. Here we are talking about the need for additional consideration of the following essential attributes of the simulated cash flow of the supply chain: 1) time value of money; 2) deferral of payment of the cost of the order; 3) pre-agreed allowable delays in the receipt of revenue from goods sold. Developed analysis and optimization procedures have been implemented to models of this type that are interesting and important for a business. This - inventory management systems, the format of which is related to the special concept of efficient supply. We are talking about models where the presence of the specified delays for the outgoing cash flows allows you to pay for the order and the corresponding costs of the supply chain from the corresponding revenue on the re-order interval. Accordingly, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established based on which managers will be able to identify models of the specified type. The purpose of the article is to draw the attention of managers to real opportunities to improve the efficiency of inventory management systems by taking into account these factors for a simulated supply chain.
This article focuses on the mandatory marking issues of footwear. The author describes the advantages of marking goods, including ensuring traceability in the supply chain. The legal framework for marking footwear and the stages of its implementation are considered. The author paid special attention to the marking process of commodity stocks. The author analyzes and classifies the options for marking commodity stocks highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. The need for the operations to stop, the feasibility of separating commodity stocks into marked and unmarked, etc. are the factors to be considered for marking goods. The proposed classification will allow a more flexible approach to the process of marking commodity stocks in the warehouse. Also, the article considers the impact of marking goods at other stages of product processing in the warehouse; highlights and analyses cost items caused by the introduction of goods marking.
Using the example of international road carriers, we consider approaches to assessing the complex indicator of competitiveness. Based on a sample of the performance results of the best transport companies from different countries, a comparison is made, and the factors that influence the change in indicators are determined. The best indicator values are set, which can serve as a guide for international road transportation companies. Based on the analysis of road transport performance indicators in the EEU countries, it was revealed that there are differences in the development of this type of activity, but all countries are characterized by an unsatisfactory state of the vehicle fleet. The change of generations of equipment in road transport is characterized by a short period, which is only 4 years, with an average change of 8-10 years. Problems with updating the car fleet lead to the fact that six generations of vehicles are simultaneously operating on the market. The paper offers a tool for determining the gap at the level of a country or individual enterprise from the market leaders.
Virtual and augmented reality technologies are one of the innovative areas that contribute to the overall trend of logistics digitalization. This study examines the main technological advances in the field of virtual and augmented reality. The article presents a classification of virtual and augmented reality devices, an overview of solutions available on the market, and a comparison of their characteristics. Based on the analysis of publications of research results and experiments conducted using virtual and augmented reality devices, the main requirements for these devices and promising ways and areas of their application in logistics are identified. The results of the analysis of the experience of using these technologies by Russian and foreign logistics companies are presented, problems and prospects are identified. We also identified problems that prevent the mass implementation of virtual and augmented reality technologies in logistics processes due to the imperfection of devices, software, and the lack of specialists. The advantages that a company can get by implementing virtual and augmented reality technologies in its logistics processes are identified.
Based on the analysis of statistical data, specialized industry sources as well as the opinions of experts in retail business, it is suggested the stages of Russian retail development over the past decade. Defining crisis and decisive points made it possible to bring into the light the boundaries of each stage. Characterizing the features and events of the period under consideration let identify not only its key trends, but also the commonality of the activity directions of industry representatives. Understanding the conditions and trends in the country's retail industry allows us to determine the main measures for logistics and supply chain management transformation implemented by retail companies in Russia. Hence, the strategies used can be intimately determined and defined, and the directions of further retailing development is predicted.
Most companies, including transport ones, represented on the Russian market of logistic services, use a system of employee motivation in their work. Its use is determined by the effectiveness of department employee's work, which positively affects a company's entire financial performance. The selection of the necessary KPI metrics (Key Performance Indicators), their economic feasibility, implementation, their application in the work of the company is a labor-intensive process. From a large number of different performance indicators, it is necessary to single out the main ones that affect the company's performance to the fullest extent. In this article, using an example of a transport and logistics company with its own fleet, we will consider the formation of a motivation system for company logisticians when a company's fleet is involved in cargo transportation.
The article deals with a number of problems that arise during the digital transformation of transport and logistics processes.
The study of the problems of forming new business processes for managing transport and logistics segments of the market in modern conditions of the digital economy is extremely relevant. The emergence of a new industry-digital logistics requires the creation and implementation of adequate organizational and methodological approaches, both on the part of the state and business. With obvious threats of loss of control, the potential for national digital logistics is huge.
Considering the processes of supply chain management from the point of view of transport forwarding, the author makes a conclusion about the need for an adequate response of domestic logistics to the rapidly changing forms of the market. Special attention is paid to the issues of digital transformation of the industry, the study of global and domestic experience in implementing digital economy technologies in real transport and logistics business processes. New technologies and mechanisms of digital transformation are global, they concern the whole world, all segments of the economy. Exploring the experience of creating new digital agendas that revise existing regulatory norms of old economic processes, the author suggests that there is no need to copy outdated standards. The idea of advanced localization of modern world trends in order to meet the new economic paradigm is formulated. The author concludes that insufficient attention is paid to creating the necessary innovative climate to support first of all advanced ideas, and not only implemented business projects. The article emphasizes that new management services for digital transformation can only be designed with integrated competencies.
The problems of digital transformation of supply chains are considered. A framework for the digital transformation of the supply chain is proposed, which consists of four basic elements: digitalization of customer experience, digitalization of products and services, digitalization of operations / processes, digital transformation of the company / supply chain. The content (functional) structure of four frame blocks is defined and the main components (systems, technologies) that make up the digital content of the framework are described in detail.
A diagram (algorithm) of the supply chain digitalization process has been developed, which includes three main stages: awareness of the need for digitalization, digital vision and strategy, in fact, a digital chain transformation technique.
The process of digital transformation of the supply chain itself includes a number of design decisions related to the formation of a communication network structure (Multi Party Network), in particular using the Blockchain technology, an integrated supply chain planning system, the Digital Twin ecosystem, as well as a digital platform control and monitoring of events in the supply chain (Supply Chain Control Tower).